Diabetes is a serious disease in which the control of the level of glucose in the blood of the body is lost. Glucose serves as the body’s major energy source, and keeping its normal levels under control is essential. Through diabetes, the body’s production or use of insulin (a hormone that helps convert glucose into energy) decreases, leading to high glucose levels.
Types of diabetes :
- Type 2 Diabetes: In diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin and/or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to insulin (insulin resistance). This is the most common type of diabetes. It is mainly seen in people of increasing age, but children can also get it.
- Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose level is higher than normal but not high enough to officially diagnose type 2 diabetes.
- Type 1 Diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas for unknown reasons. Type 1 diabetes occurs in 10% of people with diabetes. It is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults, but it can develop at any age.
- Gestational Diabetes: This type develops during pregnancy in some people. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes, you are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
The symptoms of Diabetes: The symptoms of diabetes may vary according to the body of the person, but the following symptoms are commonly observed:
- strong thirst
- frequent urination
- feeling tired and weak
- weight loss
- non-healing experience of wounds or swelling
- Tingling sensation and pain in the legs
How common is diabetes?
Diabetes is common. About 37.3 million people in the United States have diabetes, which is about 11% of the population. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, representing 90% to 95% of all diabetes cases.
Around 537 million adults worldwide have diabetes. Experts predict that number will grow to 643 million by 2030 and 783 million by 2045.
What is the cause of diabetes?
Diabetes is caused by too much glucose circulating in your bloodstream, regardless of its type. However, the reason why your blood sugar level is high depends on the type of diabetes.
Causes of diabetes include:
1. Insulin resistance / insulin resistance:
Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs when your muscle, fat, and liver cells don’t respond to insulin as well as they should. Many factors and conditions contribute to varying degrees of insulin resistance, including obesity, lack of physical activity, diet, hormonal imbalances, genetics, and certain medications.
2. Autoimmune disease / autoimmune disease:
Type 1 diabetes and LADA occur when your immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.
3. Hormonal imbalances / Hormonal imbalance:
During pregnancy, the placenta releases hormones that cause insulin resistance. You may develop gestational diabetes if your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance. Other hormonal conditions such as acromegaly and Cushing’s syndrome can also cause type 2 diabetes.
4. Pancreas Damage:
Physical damage to your pancreas – from a condition, surgery or injury – can affect its ability to make insulin, resulting in Type 3c diabetes.
5. Genetic Mutation / Genetic Mutation:
Certain genetic mutations can cause MODY and neonatal diabetes.